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爱护你的马,照顾它一生(新增内容:二到四岁)

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发表于 2006-11-26 23:38:00 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

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谨以此文献给所有爱马的朋友 也忠心地希望更多的马儿能更好地过完它们的一生 

由于工作量比较大 所以文章会一部分一部分地上传到网上 等全部完成后 我会再做一个总的整理 如果翻译有不妥的地方 希望朋友们可以及时指正 

选译自Keeping A Horse The Natural Way Jo Bird

Caring For Your Horse Throughout Its Life

爱护你的马,照顾它一生

Like humans, horses do not have a predetermined life span. One thing is for sure,
      
however, a domestic animal has a far greater chance of living well into his twenties than his wild counterpart. Ponies tend to live longer than horses. However, a great deal is dictated by the care, nutrition, and workload experienced by the individual animal. Interestingly, while some breeds –like the Tarpan, which is similar in appearance to the Exmoor pony; the American Buckskin; or horses bred from wild Spanish mustang ancester -remain virtually unaltered from their “wild” profile, modern breeding has fundamentally changed the equine –lightening bone and increasing athleticism while dispensing with some of the hardy traits, such as resistance to bad weather and the ability to survive on poor –quality food. The rapid growth development of some breeds, for example the Thoroughbred, is quite unlike the natural model. For the most part, there is a fairly consistent pattern in the development of an equine from foalhood to old age.

和人类一样,马没有可预见的生命期。然而,可以确定一件事,家养的动物和它的野生伙伴相比能更好地活到二十多岁。矮马寿命相对较长。然而,寿命在很大程度上受个体动物经历的照料,营养,以及工作量所支配。有趣的是,一些品种-像与艾克斯木尔矮马外表相似的欧洲野马,美洲黄灰马;或西班牙野马祖先培育而来的马-事实上依然没有改变他们的“野生”外形,现代饲养已经从基础上改变了马-骨骼变轻了以及运动练习的增加同时分配了一些强壮的特性,诸如抵抗坏天气以及在食物质量不高的情况下生存的能力。一些品种的快速发展,像纯种马,跟自然的典型很不一样。在极大程度上,马从小马驹到老马的发展有一个相当一致的模范。

 

 

 

 

 

 

From Birth To Six Months Old

从出生到六个月

From the moment a foal is born, it faces demands simply to survive. In contrast to babies or puppies and kittens, which can be lifted to their mother’s teats, horses and ponies generally need to stand within a couple of hours to take their first colostrum milk. Unlike other young offspring which can be carried away from danger by their mother, it is amazing to see how foals with their overly long legs can keep pace with their mares from day one. They are born with legs two-thirds of the adult length. This natural phenomenon has been one of the major factors that has allowed wild horses to do so well against their natural predators.

从小马驹出生那一刻起,它面临的需要仅仅是生存。婴儿,小狗以及小猫可以受到帮助来喝他们母亲的奶,与他们相比,马和矮马通常需要在两三个小时之内站起来喝它们的第一口初乳。与其他的年幼后代不同,它们会由母亲带它们脱离危险,令人惊奇的是看着小马驹如何在一天之后用它们过长的腿跟上它们的母亲。它们出生的时候腿长就已经达到了成年马腿长的2/3。这个自然现象已经成为允许野马能很好地做到躲避它们的自然天敌的重要原因之一。

 

 

 

 

 

 

Before the age of six months (and perhaps for a while after in some cases) a foal will spend its time suckling, sleeping, and growing under the guidance  of the mare. Apart from daily handling, we should not expect too much from such a young animal. Its growth rate is so rapid that it will have reached almost half its adult weight by the time it is seven months old. The protein requirements of a foal from two weeks to ten months are as much as 20 percent of its diet compared with about 12 percent for an adult horse. However, their fiber requirements are low- about six percent of the diet as opposed to 25 percent or more in mature animal.

在六个月之前(以及在一些情况下可能在此之后一段时间),小马驹会用这些时间来喝奶,睡觉,以及在母马的指导下成长。除了日常管理,我们不应该对如此年幼的动物有过多的期望。它的成长速度是如此之快,在七个月的时候,它的体重几乎到达成年马体重的一半。从两周到十个月小马驹的蛋白质需求量为饮食的20%,相比之下成年马的需求量大概为12%。然而,它们的纤维食物需求量较低-大概为饮食的6%与成年马的25%或者更多相对比。

 

 

 

 

 

 

For the first few days after birth,the mare and the foal should be allowed peace and quiet away from other animals to form a close bond and to allow the foal to gain in strength. The foal only has the antibodies that it has derived naturally from the mare. It takes several months to build up its own resistance to disease. Wild foals are susceptible to illness, and many are lost in this way. We are fortunate that we can vaccinate domastic foals against many diseases, like tetanus and equine influenza. It is also important to begin a worming regimen from the age of one month as foals are susceptible to worms picked up via their mother’s milk and from grazing.

从出生后几天开始,母马和小马驹应当给于安静,与其他动物隔离开,形成一种亲密关系,让小马驹得到力量。小马驹体内只有从母马身上自然获得而来的抗体。建立起它自己的抵抗疾病的防御系统需要几个月时间。野生的小马驹容易生病,并且很多就是这样丧生的。幸运的是我们可以给驯养的小马驹接种疫苗来抵抗很多疾病,像破伤风和马的流感。因为小马驹容易通过他们母亲的乳汁以及放牧感染寄生虫,所以从一个月大的时候开始一项除虫制度是非常重要的。

爱护你的马,照顾它一生(新增内容:二到四岁)

爱护你的马,照顾它一生(新增内容:二到四岁)

经过如此长的妊娠期-11个月-你也不想错过这一刻吧!母马的生育季节通常在三月到十月

爱护你的马,照顾它一生(新增内容:二到四岁)

爱护你的马,照顾它一生(新增内容:二到四岁)

在出生的几天内能喝到母亲的初乳对小马驹来说是非常有必要的,初乳里含有有益的抗体能保护年幼的动物不生病.

爱护你的马,照顾它一生(新增内容:二到四岁)

爱护你的马,照顾它一生(新增内容:二到四岁)
被掠食动物普遍成长得很快,作为一种生存战略使它们在幼年就能逃离危险.小马驹能在出生后几小时内能站起来.它们出生时的体重大概是它们成年后体重的10%.六个月的时候,它们的体重是成年后体重的40%,身高为成年后身高的80%

[此贴子已经被作者于2007-1-30 20:49:39编辑过]

爱护你的马,照顾它一生(新增内容:二到四岁)

爱护你的马,照顾它一生(新增内容:二到四岁)
沧海月明 QQ:183367820 mila21@163.com

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发表于 2006-11-27 00:09:00 | 显示全部楼层
辛苦了,好帖。
西安汉唐马文化传播有限公司
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发表于 2006-11-27 22:13:00 | 显示全部楼层
恩,月月真厉害啊~加油~

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 楼主| 发表于 2006-11-28 13:45:00 | 显示全部楼层

恩 这两天要考试了 忙完了再继续

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发表于 2006-11-28 15:40:00 | 显示全部楼层
祝你考试成功,继续完成此文章的翻译发表工作,期盼中.
西安大唐礼宾骑兵队----西安马术俱乐部 http://www.niwota.com/quan/5159128/ 纯粹的血统,带着鲜明纯正的基因优势,是历经丰厚积淀后形成的特质烙印
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顶一下

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发表于 2006-12-1 22:18:00 | 显示全部楼层

有空得繼續啊

高山、 草原、 荒漠、 大海、河谷........揚鞭策馬

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 楼主| 发表于 2006-12-2 17:16:00 | 显示全部楼层

遇到麻烦了 还没有解决 正在努力

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 楼主| 发表于 2006-12-3 18:47:00 | 显示全部楼层

Early Learning早期学习

Although bred in a domestic situation, it is important for the foal’s development to try to mimic the natural “herd” social

system and, if possible, to have other “nanny” mares and horses/ponies around, as long as the animals get along well

together and are free from disease. Other youngstock will be playmates. A calm veteran will act as a confidence giver and

steadying influence when the foal is faced with new sights and challenges. Horses and ponies brought up with purely

human companions from such an early age often exhibit dangerous behavior, such as biting and barging, as they have not

learned the basis for bonding subordination gained from a natural herd structure. They may also be unable to cope in

a social group of other horses and inadvertently give the wrong signals, making them the subject of bullying.

尽管在家养的环境下出生,为了小马驹的发展,尝试模仿自然“马群”社会体制是很重要的,如果有可能,

在周围养其它的“奶妈”母马和马/矮马,直到动物们在一起相处得很好并且不会生病。其它的年幼家畜

可以成为它们的玩伴。一位从容的老手会充当一位自信的给予者以及当小马驹面对新景象和挑战的时候

会给予持续影响。马和矮马从如此小的岁数开始完全地和人类为伴而长大常常会表现出危险的行为,诸

如咬人或四处乱冲撞,因为它们没有从自然马群结构中学会基本的服从。它们可能还不会应付社会集体

中其它的马并且会无意地给错信号,使它们受欺负。

All we should aim to achieve in the form of schooling is to be able to lead the animal about in a foal slip, tie it up calmly for

a few minutes to be groomed, and lift up each leg without resistance. All this should be done with the mare in close proximity.

所有我们应该计划完成的调训形式是能够给小马驹戴上笼头引导它。平静地将它栓住几分钟,为它

刷刷毛,抬抬每一条腿,不许有反抗。所有这些都应该有母马在近处陪伴下进行。

It is important to have limbs and hooves checked by a vet and farrier. Most of the bones in the limbs have growth

plates containing cartilage positioned near the top(proximal) end and the bottom (distal) end of each bone. As the cartilage

is soft, the limbs need to experience even pressure as they grow for correct limb alignment. The growth plates are soft to

begin with and ossify over time, beginning from the hoof and working up the leg.

请兽医检查一下(小马驹的)四肢和蹄子是很重要的。  大多数四肢的骨头都有含有软骨组织的生长面,

位于每根骨头的顶部(近端)附近和底部(末端)附近。因为软骨组织是软的,四肢生长成正直的位置

需要经历均衡的压力。生长面最初是软的,随着时间发展才慢慢变硬,从蹄子开始一直到腿。

In the wild, any conformational deformities cannot be corrected. They would certainly handicap an animal in later life,

if it managed to survive at all. Fortunately, with human intervention, slight misalignments can usually be corrected at this

early stage in its development.

在野外,任何构形畸形都不能被矫正。如果这个动物无论如何生存下来了,那么它在往后的生活里肯定

会变得残疾。幸运的是,有人类的干涉,轻微的不正通常可以在它发育的早期被纠正。

爱护你的马,照顾它一生(新增内容:二到四岁)

爱护你的马,照顾它一生(新增内容:二到四岁)

给小马驹戴上笼头引导它应该在短时期内有母马在近处陪伴下进行.

爱护你的马,照顾它一生(新增内容:二到四岁)

爱护你的马,照顾它一生(新增内容:二到四岁)

图中展示的做法是为了让小马驹注意它的运动并且习惯敏感部位施加的压力.

爱护你的马,照顾它一生(新增内容:二到四岁)

爱护你的马,照顾它一生(新增内容:二到四岁)

检查蹄子和四肢结构是否正确是非常有必要的,因为可能会出现畸形.为了使小马驹适应,动作应该温柔.



 

[此贴子已经被作者于2006-12-8 21:19:51编辑过]
更多图片 小图 大图
组图打开中,请稍候......
沧海月明 QQ:183367820 mila21@163.com
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发表于 2006-12-3 19:22:00 | 显示全部楼层
有侏侏真好!

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 楼主| 发表于 2006-12-4 01:09:00 | 显示全部楼层

继续

确保关节正常发育

蹄铁匠的定期观察可以避免马蹄变的不平整,马蹄不平会造成四肢受力不均,从而导致生长面发育不均衡.

 

 

 


生长面

小马驹的骨胳发育从长腿骨两端的软骨组织开始,然后逐渐变成骨胳。长腿骨的每一端都有两个生长面.成熟期,软骨组织细胞膨胀,然后骨化成骨质.

小马驹的笼头需要经常做调整以此避免因为长大而摩伤.没有监督的情况下,让小马驹戴着笼头是不明智的,因为笼头有可能会缠住.

 

[此贴子已经被作者于2006-12-4 1:13:54编辑过]
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发表于 2006-12-4 21:39:00 | 显示全部楼层
内容不错.美中不足的是.文章的字体看上去好象小了点!呵呵...
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发表于 2006-12-6 14:36:00 | 显示全部楼层

非常感谢为我们提供这么好的学习资料.

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我是温州的马友,有空来我们温州玩~

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 楼主| 发表于 2006-12-6 19:33:00 | 显示全部楼层

我也觉得这个资料非常好 所以把它翻译出来 希望可以帮助更多爱马的朋友

谢谢楼上的朋友 有机会我一定要去温州的马场转转 从我家坐车过去可能几个小时吧 我是湖州的

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学习了!真好

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 楼主| 发表于 2006-12-18 14:50:00 | 显示全部楼层

Six months to two years old六个月到两岁大

After about six months the foal should be a great deal more independent and we should continue to build up its confidence in people and other animals. In the wild the youngstock would learn from siblings and the older members of the herd, interacting with them and learning their role in the herd hierarchy. The domestic animal has got to become part of the human “herd” in the same way. We are fortune that these young animals will be reliant on us for food and perhaps company, so the process of imprinting desired behaviour on them should not be too difficult as they look on us as both provider and friend.

六个月后小马驹会更独立,我们应该继续建立它与人及其它动物之间的信赖.在野外,小马驹会向马群中的兄弟姐妹和年长马学习,互相影响并且学习它们在阶级组织中的角色。同样的方式,家畜已经成为人类“群体”中的一部分。我们很幸运这些年幼的动物会因为食物或者(我们的)陪伴而信任我们,因此要它们记住预期行为的过程应该并不困难,因为它们将我们视为供给者和朋友。

 

 

 

Throughout the first two years, the bodies of these young colts or fillies will be growing tremendously quickly. It is important that we do not put too many extra strains on them, either physically or mentally, which could impair their natural development. As owners, we should be there to support their needs. By adopting a more natural system of care, we can help them in their development. By this I mean by providing equine (and human) companions to teach them their place in the herd and allowing them time to play and rest so they can both build up muscles and grow without putting too much strain onto their weak frames.

前两年,这些小雄马或小雌马的身体会成长的非常快。重要的是我们不能给它们太多额外的压力,不论是身体上的还是精神上的,否则会损害它们的自然发展。作为主人,我们应该来扶持它们的需要。采取一项更自然的管理系统,我们可以帮助它们发展。通过这我的意思是提供马(和人)的陪伴来教它们在马群中它们所处的位置以及允许它们有时间玩和休息,所以它们可以同时增加肌肉并且不会对它们柔弱的骨架造成太多压力。

 

 

 

A weaned animal will not have the tailor-made natural diet it previously received from the mare. So it is important that adequate levels of calcium, minerals, and protein are included in the feed intake. The diet of youngstock is a contentious issue as overfeeding or an incorrect diet can lead to problems in later life.

小马驹断奶后不会再有像先前从母马那得到的特制的自然饮食。所以摄取的食物中含有足够程度的钙,矿物质,以及蛋白质是很重要的。小马驹的饮食是一项有争议的问题因为过度喂食或饮食不正确会导致今后生活中出现问题。

 

 

 

We must aware that horses and ponies mature at different rates depending on their breeding. So while a Thoroughbred’s genes determine that it will be more or less fully development by the age of two years, it is certainly a risky business (and one that may have detrimental effects in the longer term) to overfeed a lanky two year old for the purpose of accelerating its growth for the showing. You must allow sufficient time for the muscles and bones which support the structure to mature.

我们必须注意马和矮马受育种的决定成熟速度不同。所以当一个纯种的基因决定了,到两岁的时候它就差不多完全成长了,这无疑是一件冒险事情(在更长的时期可能会有不利的影响)为了促进外表的成长而给两岁大的消瘦的(马)过度喂食。你必须给支撑结构的肌肉和骨骼提供足够的时间来成熟。

 

 

 

As an owner, it is far better simple to give adequate forage and a hard feed designed to prevent deficiencies in youngstock and permit ad-lib grazing if at all possible. Turning the animal out to exercise itself is all that is necessary for muscle development. In this way, we are not trying to force the young animal to resemble and perform like an adult horse. Exercising an immature animal, by lunging for example, can put strain onto the joints and cause deformities such as splints.

作为主人,提供足够的饲料和严格制定的饲养方案避免小马驹营养不足,在任何情况下可能的话避免自由放牧。为了肌肉的生长所需要做的全部就是带小马驹出来让它自己锻炼。通过这种方式,我们不是试图强迫小马驹模仿和做成年马的行为。锻炼不成熟的小马驹,打个比方通过调教索训练,会对关节施加压力以及会造成类似掌骨疣(马的裂骨或炮骨的扩大)的畸形。

 

 

 

The hooves should be regularly trimmed every six weeks by the farrier. This will probably minimize problems when fitting shoes becomes necessary.

马蹄应该每六周请蹄铁匠修整一下。这样在需要钉蹄铁的时候很可能会减少问题。

 

 

 

爱护你的马,照顾它一生(新增内容:二到四岁)

爱护你的马,照顾它一生(新增内容:二到四岁)
马蹄应该每六周请蹄铁匠修整一下.

 

爱护你的马,照顾它一生(新增内容:二到四岁)

爱护你的马,照顾它一生(新增内容:二到四岁)

同伴可以帮助小马驹情绪和身体上稳定。马类朋友可以在外一起玩耍,而这人类很难提供。

 

爱护你的马,照顾它一生(新增内容:二到四岁)

爱护你的马,照顾它一生(新增内容:二到四岁)

马的后半身生长比较快,所以两岁大的小马驹臀部会比马肩隆高.当马到达三,四岁的时候,前半身的生长才会跟上.

[此贴子已经被作者于2006-12-18 16:24:32编辑过]
沧海月明 QQ:183367820 mila21@163.com

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发表于 2006-12-24 11:22:00 | 显示全部楼层

很好的文章!衷心感谢版主为广大马友作出的贡献,希望能看到更多,呵呵!

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发表于 2006-12-25 19:06:00 | 显示全部楼层
好文章。学骑马就应该从了解马开始。

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顶一下!

好文章。

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